Dating back to 4000 BC, Egypt has one of the longest histories in the world. Yet, this rich ancestry has done little to safeguard the country’s journey into modern times.
Today, the "cradle of civilisation" is beset by difficulties - many of which stem from the rising disparity between rich and poor. In swamped cities on the banks of the Nile, the full force of rapid population growth is felt - particularly considering that 95 per cent of Egypt is arid desert. This significant population increase comes at a time of unprecedented climate shocks with serious implications for almost all agricultural activity. Bad news for an economy where over a quarter of job seekers aged 18-29 are unemployed.
Widespread violence against women on the street and the repeated exploitation of disabled people regularly make the headlines. In 2014, in the wake of the Arab Spring, Egypt adopted a new constitution giving transformative constitutional rights to women and girls. Since then, women have played a pivotal role in politics - though this is often dwarfed by endemic public and domestic violence.